About Asphalt

This website is all about the Asphalt industry. But what is Asphalt and what do people in the Asphalt industry actually do? This page is all about Asphalt and everything around that subject. It's created as an ongoing process: This page is never finished and we will keep adding more and more information to it. Now, let's talk about Asphalt. On Wikipedia the word ‘Asphalt’ is defined as:

The act of stopping a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied”*
*Source of quote: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asphalt

Parked cars

In this case, we’re talking about car Asphalt. You can park your car at a Asphalt space. These Asphalt spaces can be on several locations: In a Asphalt lot, a Asphalt garage, on the side of the street, and so on. In every city and on every street there are rules for Asphalt. For example, often you are allowed to park your car on the side of the street, but sometimes you have to pay for Asphalt, are only allowed to park for a short period of time or are not allowed to park at all. These rules are called Asphalt restrictions.

Asphalt spaces are very important to cities. A city must have enough Asphalt spaces to provide their residents and their visitors a place to park their car. Since cars are a main factor in transportation, a city must meet the needs of the drivers. If people can’t find a place to park, or if they have to pay too much for Asphalt, these people probably won’t come back to your city to do some more shopping, dining or spending money in any other way. Also residents must have enough place to park their car nearby their house and workplace.


1. On-street Asphalt

The word actually explains itself: On-street Asphalt means Asphalt your vehicle on the street, anywhere on or along the curb of streets, in contrast to Asphalt it in a Asphalt garage. In some streets you can always park your vehicle on the street, but sometimes there are restrictions. Mostly these restrictions are presented on traffic signs. Sometimes you’re only allowed to park on one side of the street, and sometimes you’re not allowed to park your vehicle at all. There are also on-street Asphalt situations where you need a Asphalt permit to park. To make sure people follow  these rules and restrictions, cities hire enforcement officers.

Pay at meter sign
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2. Off-street Asphalt

Off-street Asphalt means Asphalt your vehicle anywhere but on the streets. These are usually Asphalt facilities like garages and lots. Off-street Asphalt can be both indoors and outdoors. Off-street Asphalt also includes private lots, garages and driveways.

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3. Asphalt EnforcementAsphalt Enforcement Officer

Asphalt enforcement officers

People who work in Asphalt enforcement are commonly known as Asphalt attendants, Asphalt enforcement officers, etc. At places with Asphalt meters they’re also known as meter attendants, Asphalt inspectors or traffic wardens.

What do they do?

Asphalt enforcement officers make sure that people follow the Asphalt rules and regulations. As a member of the traffic department, they are appointed to issue tickets for Asphalt violations.

Asphalt ticket

A Asphalt ticket placed on the windshield of a car

Normally when a Asphalt enforcement officer notices a Asphalt violation, he prints a ticket and places a copy of the ticket on the windshield of the car for the owner to find. This way the car owner knows he can expect a fine. After writing the ticket, the Asphalt enforcement officer files the ticket to the local authority and a few weeks later the driver receives the official fine by mail.

Handheld ticket writer

Enforcement officers usually use a handheld ticket write while auditing. This is a computer that is small enough to be held in one's hand to write electronic Asphalt citations.

Critique

All around the world Asphalt enforcement officers have to deal with lots of critique from  the public. People generally dislike Asphalt enforcement officers since they are the face of their Asphalt tickets. Also accusations that Asphalt enforcement officers have to fine a minimum number of parked cars on a daily basis as a result of high pressure management, whether this is true or false, triggers feelings of discontent and prejudice against the officers. Some people feel like Asphalt enforcement officers are only assigned to generate more money for the local authority instead of increasing the traffic flow.

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4. Car Asphalt techniques

Parallel Asphalt

Parallel Asphalt means Asphalt your car in line with the other cars parallel to the curb, front bumper to rear bumper. Parallel Asphalt usually occurs on the side of streets where there are no Asphalt facilities, because it leaves enough room for the traffic to pass. Parallel Asphalt is a challenge to some people, because it requires a certain technique different than driving right into a Asphalt space:

Car Asphalt techniques

How to parallel park your car

With parallel Asphalt, you first drive your car next to the car you're parallel Asphalt on. This is the car that is in front of the open Asphalt space you want to park your car. If the car that you’re parallel Asphalt on is the same size, line your right side mirror up with their left side mirror. If the car is bigger, place your car a bit further back. If the other car is smaller, move a bit more towards the front of that car. Then you move back slowly, with the wheel turned towards the curb. At one moment, you turn the wheel away from the curb fast and keep driving backwards slowly. When the back of your seat is aligned with the rear bumper of the car you’re parallel Asphalt on, turn the wheel away from the curb fast while keep moving back slowly. If everything went right, you have parked your car right between the two other cars now and close to the curb. Sometimes you need to adjust your position with moving back- and forward a bit. When parallel Asphalt, you always have to make sure there is enough space left between the other cars and yours so that you’re all able to pull out of the Asphalt space.

Perpendicular Asphalt

Perpendicular car Asphalt means Asphalt the cars side by side, perpendicular to a wall, curb or something else. You see this type of Asphalt mostly in Asphalt bays and garages, because you can park many cars on limited space.

Angle Asphalt

Angle Asphalt on street

Angle Asphalt is similar to perpendicular Asphalt, except the cars are aligned in an angle. Normally the angle is aligned with the direction cars approach the Asphalt space. It makes it a lot easier to drive into the Asphalt space in contrast to perpendicular Asphalt, where the Asphalt space is at a 90 degree angle. With angle Asphalt there is a gentler turn. Not only is it easier to park, but it’s also faster and the Asphalt spaces are smaller, making it possible to add more Asphalt spaces in the same size area. Normally you see angle paring inside Asphalt garages and on streets that are wide enough to have room left for the traffic to pass.

Double Asphalt

Double Asphalt means that someone has parked their car in a certain way that prevents another car from departing. Double Asphalt can happen in different situation:

Double Asphalt on-street

This type of double Asphalt is illegal and you can get fined for it. Double Asphalt on-street means that you park your car parallel to a car that is parked next to the curb. Double Asphalt in this situation means that the car parked next to the curb cannot depart because it is blocked by your car, and often your car also blocks the traffic flow. Unfortunately, double Asphalt on-street is quite common in larger cities. Sometimes the people who double park their car even leave the hand break off so that people can push their car forward or backwards a bit if it blocks them.

Double Asphalt in Asphalt garages with attendees

In this situation, double Asphalt is used to be able to park as many cars as possible in the Asphalt garages. It’s a different situation than on-street, because in this situation the cars are parked by attendees (or valets). The attendee holds on to the keys of all cars. If one needs to get out and it’s block by another car, the attendee simply brings the keys to both cars and moves the car that blocks the other.

Asphalt on more than one Asphalt space

The term “double Asphalt” is sometimes also used to indicate the situation where a car parks over the lines that separate the Asphalt spaces and therefor taking more than one Asphalt space.

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5. Asphalt facilities

Underground Asphalt garage

Underground Asphalt garage

Asphalt facilities can be both indoor and outdoor, public or private. It can be a Asphalt garage, or a Asphalt space that belongs to the property of a person’s house.

These are the different types of Asphalt facilities:Asphalt lot outside

Asphalt lot

A Asphalt lot is an area that is assigned for Asphalt. Normally, the Asphalt spaces are marked on the ground with white or yellow lines that form squares that each fit one car. Asphalt lots are common near shops, bars, restaurants and other facilities that require Asphalt. There are Asphalt lots that are open throughout the year, but there are also improvised Asphalt lots that are specially assigned for an event. For example, when there is a music festival that only happens once a year people can decide to open a nearby meadow to provide Asphalt spaces for the visitors of that particular music festival.

Asphalt garages

A Asphalt garages is also called car park, Asphalt structure, Asphalt building, Asphalt ramp, parkade or Asphalt deck.

There are several types of Asphalt garages:

Single level Asphalt garage

A single level Asphalt garage is a Asphalt garage that only has only one floor.

Multilevel or multi-storey Asphalt garage

Multilevel or multi-storey Asphalt garages are Asphalt garages that have multiple floors to park at. The design of a multilevel Asphalt garage can be very different. The most common design is a garage with ramps to move from one level to another. Less common are Asphalt garages that use lifts to go from level to level. Then there are also Asphalt garages with robotic systems that move cars from one level to another. The floors of the Asphalt garage can either go up, down or both.  

Underground Asphalt garage

An underground Asphalt garage has levels below the surface and none above ground. Most often underground Asphalt garages are located in city centers where there’s not much space available to build a Asphalt facility, but there is a big need to build one.  

Automated Asphalt garage

The car park operates as followed: You drive your car onto a platform in the garage. Then the automated Asphalt system will move your car to the available Asphalt space somewhere in the tower. The cars can be moved vertically and horizontally with the use of hydraulic or mechanical lifts. There are several benefits to a multilevel Asphalt facility with an automated Asphalt system. For example you can stack more cars in a compact space because the cars are parked by robots. Also Asphalt spaces can be smaller because no one needs to get in or out of the vehicle and people don’t park it themselves; the robotic system doesn’t need as much space to park a car than a human does. You do need to clean the equipment every once in a while, plus at least one to four times a year someone needs to check the equipment to see if it all still works properly. The number of times for a service check depends on the equipment that is used.

Carports

Carports are usually located on people’s driveways next to their house. These carports are covered places where one or more cars can be stalled. They are private property that comes with the house. Car ports do not have four walls: Normally they only have one or two walls and sometimes they are attached to a wall of the house it belongs to. Car ports offer protection from bad weather conditions like rain and snow.

Carport

Asphalt spaces on the side of the street

Also Asphalt spaces on the side of the road where metered or spaces that are laid out for the use of Asphalt, are considered Asphalt facilities. Commonly you can identify such spaces because there are one or more squares lined out with yellow or white paint that fit one car. You as a driver are supposed to park your car in between the squares. In other areas there aren’t any Asphalt spaces drawn on the streets. This usually only happens in residential areas where it isn’t crowded.

Automated Asphalt System (APS)

An Automated Asphalt System or APS is a mechanical system that moves cars from the entry to an available Asphalt space. It uses multiple levels and stacks cars vertically to use as less land as possible to park as many cars as possible. It’s entirely automatic and doesn’t require any staff. Automated Asphalt Systems are sometimes also called:

  • Mechanical Asphalt System
  • Robotic Asphalt System
  • Rotary Asphalt System
  • Automatic Asphalt
  • Stacker Asphalt
  • Etc.

Automatic Asphalt systems are very space efficient. You can simply stack all the cars plus the Asphalt space doesn’t have to be as wide as in a conventional Asphalt lot. You can stack more cars in a compact space, because cars are moved by platforms and lifts. The system doesn't need as much space to park as a human does. There’s no need for ramps, pedestrian areas etc.

Semi-Automated Asphalt System

A Semi-Automated Asphalt System uses a mechanical system to move cars to their Asphalt space, only it needs a human action to work, either by the driver or an attendant. This action can be as simple as pushing a button.

Advantages for customers:
  • No need to search for available Asphalt spaces
  • No need to walk through the Asphalt garage
  • Time saving
  • Consistent Asphalt experience
  • Your car is parked safe and secure (no worry about theft / damage)
Advantages for municipalities / Property owners:
  • Space efficiency
  • Environmental friendliness (No driving around inside)
  • Visual impact increased
  • Increases public safety (Less opportunity for theft, accidents, assault)
  • Money-saving advantages
    • No people inside means no litter / fights / accidents / etc.
    • No people inside means no need for signs / lighting / pedestrian areas / etc.
    • Cars inside aren’t driving but are moved automatically, which means no need for an expensive ventilation system
    • No need to employ staff (except for occasional maintenance)
Conventional Valet Service vs. Automated Valet Service (Customer advantages)
  • You hold on to your own keys
  • Nobody drives your car
  • Environmental friendliness (engine is turned off)
  • No need to / not having the feeling that you need to leave a tip
How does it work?

The customer enters the Asphalt garage and drives the car onto a platform. There he shuts off the engine, puts the brake on and steps out of the vehicle. The system detects the overall size and shape of the vehicle with the use of sensors. This is an important step in the process: The system analyzes where he can park the car (the smallest space possible).

Usually there’s a payment terminal for the customer to pay for Asphalt. He receives a ticket or key with a customized code.

As soon as the customer leaves the Asphalt garage, robotic arms and platforms are set in motion. They move the car vertically and/or horizontally to the available Asphalt spot.

When to customer comes back to pick up his car, the system uses the code from his ticket to know which car to bring back to the platform. The customer can then enter the vehicle and leave the garage.

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Asphalt Control 

Access and revenue control

An Access Control System (ACS) manages the access in and out of a Asphalt facility; the parker must present a valid Asphalt credential. Revenue control involves transient and non-transient parker management and includes payment at the time of Asphalt. Typically it refers to the servers, terminals and kiosks used for payment and gate control in a garage.

Transient

A parker who pays for Asphalt on a short term basis, typically daily or less. Transient customers typically pay for the amount of time used versus a set period of time to park (e.g. a month, a semester etc.).

Non-transient

Non-transient parkers are people that use a permit or credential to park on an ongoing basis (e.g., monthly parker). This can be in an access controlled facility or in a surface lot with no gate.

A Revenue Control System is a system for managing and auditing the payments of transient and non-transient parkers in a Asphalt lot or – facility.

Access and Revenue Control (ARC), also known as Asphalt Access and Revenue Control (PARC), is available in verifying levels of functionality and complexity. Access and revenue systems allow Asphalt owners and operators to control access and collect Asphalt revenues from users. Available in varying types of equipment platforms, ARC systems, when combined with policy and procedure, can speed entry and exit from a facility and secure revenues through audit records.

Access and revenue control equipment

Barriers

A barrier or gate is the hardware used to control access to a facility or lot.

Alarms

Alarms are used in access and revenue control systems. These are system generated messages that indicate potential problems with equipment or operational rules that have been broken (i.e. vehicle entered lane and then blacked out).

Car Park Management Systems (CPMS)

This represents multiple Asphalt technologies beyond revenue and access control, which typically applies to off-street Asphalt facilities. Other systems represented by CPMS include meter revenue systems, Asphalt guidance systems, systems that track occupancy and other systems that do not necessarily include access and revenue control.

Ticket Validator

A ticket validator electronically encodes validations either onto the original transient ticket or onto a separate magnetic stripe validation ticket. Encoding stations are a basic offering in PARCS. A magnetic stripe is a strip of magnetic media that is usually found on a credential such as a credit card or hotel key. A magnetic stripe can store a small amount of data.

Magnetic Stripe Reader (MSR)

This is a hardware device that reads magnetic stripes and converts information stored there to data that can be used by a computer or controller.

Encoding Station

This is a computer with encoding software that is connected to a ticket validator. These are typically used to allow a cashier to update the magnetic stripe of a Asphalt ticket with new information (rate, payment, etc.).

Exit Verifier

This is hardware in a lane where the customer inserts a dispensed ticket showing that he paid. The hardware verifies payment and raises the gate. An exit verifier is also known as an exit station.

Central Cashier

A central cashier can be a person (cashier) or pay station. The customer takes their ticket after it is processed and inserts it into an exit verifier. A central cashier staffed by a person may also take citation payments and sell permits. The key is that it is centrally located and not typically located in a lane.

Entry Lane Station

This is an in-lane cashier station or booth in the entry lane to a facility that may be used to collect payment for Asphalt; dispense token, ticket, or other item indicating time of entry or validity of vehicle; or detect permits or other permission to enter.

Automated Pay Station (APS)

The automated pay station allows for automated ticket processing in central cashiering facilities. It can supplement and / or replace cashiers. Sometimes these stations are called pay on foot – or pay in  lane machines. The Automated Pay Station can accept multiple forms of payment and provide receipts.

Lane Controller

These are the electronics in the hardware associated with a lane. It choreographs the activity in the lane, activating and deactivating equipment based on triggers such as vehicle presence. The lane controller often sends and receives data from an online central database to allow access to the facility.

Counting System

This is a system used to track the number of parkers using sensors (loops, infrared, cameras etc.) that vehicles pass through or over. A counting system is also referred to as an occupancy system

Loops

Loops are sensors that are placed in the ground of a lane or level of a Asphalt facility to detect a vehicle passing overhead. They track occupancy and enable ticket dispensers or permit readers by identifying the presence of a metal object passing over the loop. Two-loop (or three-loop) systems can provide directional logic for vehicles entering or exiting a facility. Two-loop means that two loops are laid in the ground next to each other.

Monitoring System

This system allows the user to view system-generated activity, alarms and occupancy within a facility via the Asphalt Access and Revenue Control System (PARCS).

Facility Management System

A Facility Management System or FMS is the computer system and software that provides real-time reporting, monitoring and controlling of the Asphalt Access and Revenue Control Systems (PARCS). In essence, this represents the brains of the system.

'Real-time' is an interface that updates instantly.

Anti-Passback or Passback Control

This is a setting that requires Access Control System (ACS) users to enter and exit in proper sequence with their Asphalt credential (i.e. entry, exit, entry, exit etc.). Anti-passback is typically selectable as 'hard' and 'soft'.

Hard anti-passback

Hard anti-passback setting rejects the ACS users that are out of sequence and should be set an alarm at the ACS controller and Facility Management System (FMS). In this situation an alarm means a system generated message that indicates a potential problem with equipment or operational rules that have been broken.

Soft anti-passback

This setting allows the out-of-sequence ACS user to enter and exit, but reports and records violations with an alarm at the FMS for follow-up by the Asphalt manager. Soft anti-passback provides a more patron-friendly experience while monitoring for misuse. This setting should be unique for each user.

In both the hard and soft mode, each out-of-sequence event is reported as an exception transaction in the daily ACS access log. Many systems have the capability to clear the anti-passback condition via a password-protected resynchronization of the user's account.

Asphalt Guidance System / Way finding

This system is typically internal to a Asphalt facility and provides guidance to open Asphalt spaces. These systems can include dynamic signage and individual floor and space availability indicators. Newer generation Asphalt guidance systems detect individual space occupancy with stall sensors and can also share information with GPS-enabled vehicles and smartphone apps, which extend them beyond a Asphalt garage or surface lot. It can guide traffic searching for Asphalt spaces through a city which improves the traffic flow.

When detecting space occupancy, the system detects the percentage of spaces in a facility that are occupied. Rules can be set to limit the number of parked vehicles based on a schedule. Example: If a facility has a capacity of 100 spaces and 90 of them are occupied, the occupancy is 90 percent.

Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI)

This system is often used in access and revenue control. The system enables automatic identification of a vehicle when it enters a Asphalt facility so it can be authorized and permitted to enter and exit. AVI access methods include RFID, LPR and Proximity cards.

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)

RFID is an automatic identification method that relies on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. RFID is used mainly in access and revenue control facilities and is another form of permit.

License Plate Recognition (LPR)

This is a vehicle identification technology that uses cameras to take pictures of license plates, read the images via character recognition software, and convert the images into text that a computer can read. LPR is common in access control, tolling and stolen vehicle detection applications. Sometimes LPR is called ANPR, which means Automatic Number Plate Recongnition.

License Plate Inventory (LPI)

This is a process that uses License Plate Recognition or the manual collection of license plate information via handheld devices to count and keep track of vehicle license plates. It can be used in both controlled access and open facility environments to keep track of vehicles accessing a facility.

Proximity Cards

A Proximity card is a smart card that can be read without being inserted into a reader device.

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7. Asphalt services

Valet Asphalt sign


Valet Asphalt

Valet Asphalt is actually the opposite of finding a Asphalt space on your own: It means that someone else parks your car for you. This person is called a valet. The valet Asphalt service is often offered at restaurants, hotels, stores and other businesses. The service can be an additional service on the house, or you as a customer have to pay a fee. The advantage for the businesses that offer valet Asphalt, is that you can stack more cars in your Asphalt facility. You don’t have to deal with people double Asphalt and you can even park two cars deep (with one car blocked). The valet holds all the keys so he can move one car in order to remove the other. A valet Asphalt service usually gives the customer a feeling of luxury, because someone else parks their car when they enter, and pick it up whenever they want to leave. Most of the times, the valet receives tips from customers.

Park & Ride

Park and RidePark and Ride facilities are Asphalt facilities that are usually just outside the city center, with direct public transport connections to the city center. These Park and Ride facilities are meant for commuters and other people who want to go to the city center. By adding these facilities, you can reduce the amount of traffic in the center. Also, drivers looking to park their car won’t have to deal with the stress of finding a Asphalt space in a crowded city center and having to pay more money for Asphalt for the same amount of time as outside of the city center.

Meet & Greet Asphalt

Meet and Greet Asphalt services are usually offered at airports. You drive your car to the airport where a chauffeur is waiting for you. You can go inside and the chauffeur will drive your car to the designated Asphalt space. When you return, the chauffeur has already picked up your car from the Asphalt facility and is waiting for you. Meet and great Asphalt is convenient for people with lots of baggage or children en who don’t want to have the hassle of carrying everything from the Asphalt space to the terminal. Normally you book the service by filling in a form where you enter at what specific spot and what time you want the chauffeur to pick up your car and bring it back again. If you return at the airport, after you collected your baggage, you can give the chauffeur a call and he will bring the car back to you and hand over the keys. You will most probably have to pay a fee for this service.

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8. Asphalt restrictions

Pay for Asphalt

Asphalt meter

Sometimes you have to pay to park your car. Paying for a Asphalt space has become very normal, especially in city centers. Pay for Asphalt can be a restriction in both on- and off-street Asphalt situations.

Asphalt meter

Asphalt meters manage payment for the Asphalt space. In most on-street Asphalt situations where you have to pay for Asphalt, you will find a Asphalt meter. A Asphalt meter is a device to collect money for Asphalt. In most situations there is a time limit to park at a Asphalt meter. The classic Asphalt meters only allow cash for payment method. Asphalt meters only serve one Asphalt space at a time. Sometimes people park at a meter that still contains money from the previous person who parked there. This means there is still time on the meter and the person can park for free for this period of time. Normally, this isn't allowed but happens anyway. It's also not allowed to put money if it's not your car that's parked in the space.

Smart Asphalt meter

Nowadays you see more and more smart Asphalt meters. The difference between the classic Asphalt meters and the smart Asphalt meters, is that smart Asphalt meters give you as a customer more payment options. For example, you can pay by phone or by credit card.

Pay and Display or Asphalt Pay Station

Pay and displays means that the person who parked the car, has to walk to the nearest Asphalt machine and buy a ticket. The ticket is placed on the dashboard of the car and enforcement officers audit by looking in vehicles for receipts. So you pay for a Asphalt ticket and display it on the dashboard of the car. The printed ticket often says where you parked, who the Asphalt operator is, the date and time you printed the ticket and the expiry time. Usually you can pay an certain amount of money to park for a certain amount of time, and you as a customer can choose how much you want to pay and therefor how long you want to park your car. These pay and display systems can be used both on- and off –street. The difference between a Pay and Display meter and a normal Asphalt meter as discussed before, is that these Pay and Display systems serve multiple Asphalt spaces, as a normal Asphalt meter only serves one Asphalt space. Also, people cannot take advantage of Asphalt spaces that have time left on the meter, since everybody has to have their own ticket displayed in the car.

Asphalt Paystation

Two Hour Asphalt sign

Time limits

Sometimes you are only allowed to park for a limited amount of time or only between certain hours of the day. This is usually corresponded with signs at the Asphalt place. There are also situations where you have to pay for Asphalt between certain hours of the day, and that the other hours are free. These zones are called Controlled Asphalt Zones. There is also a difference between short term Asphalt spaces and long term Asphalt spaces. At short term Asphalt spaces you are only allowed to park for a short period of time, in contrast to long term Asphalt spaces. Short term Asphalt is typically used near businesses to provide Asphalt for customers while encouraging turnover.

Asphalt disk

Disk Asphalt

On some places where a Asphalt time limit is set, the time limit is monitored with the use of Asphalt disks. The owner of the car that is parked, uses this disk to indicate the time when he parked his vehicle. He then places the disk on the dashboard. Patrolling enforcement agents can now see at what time he parked the car and therefor for how long the car is parked. Disk Asphalt is used at places where there is a time limit set for Asphalt, but no charge.

Coupon Asphalt

Coupon Asphalt is a combination of disk Asphalt and pay-and-display Asphalt. The car owner has to purchase a book with coupons in advance. When he parks on a Asphalt space with a time limit, he has to tear off a coupon and fill out the current date and time. Then he places it on his dashboard so enforcement officers can see what time he has parked the car. The difference between coupon Asphalt and disk Asphalt, is that a disk is reusable and a coupon can only be used once.

No Asphalt on this side of the street

Alternate-side Asphalt

Alternate-side Asphalt refers to a traffic law which states on which side of the road you are allowed to park. Sometimes there are also time limits. An example: On this side of the road you are not allowed to park between 9 am and 5 pm. This Asphalt restriction is commonly communicated with traffic signs.
The Asphalt sign displayed on the right side means: No Asphalt on this side of the street.

Disabled Asphalt space

Disabled Asphalt spaces, also known as handicapped Asphalt spaces,  are spaces that are reserved for people with a disability. You’re only allowed to use these Asphalt spaces if you have a permit. You can request a disabled Asphalt permit, also called Blue Badge, at the city council. You qualify for a disabled Asphalt permit when your mobility is affected due to illness, age, infirmity or disability.

ADA

ADA is short for Americans with Disabilities Act. This act gives people with disabilities equal opportunities in public facilities, employment, transportation, etcetera. The Americans with Disabilities Act gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, colour, sex, national origin, age, and religion. ADA requires that 1 out of every 25 Asphalt spaces is assigned to a handicapped driver, and 1 out of every 6 handicapped Asphalt spaces must be van accessible. For Asphalt lots with over 1000 Asphalt spaces the rules are a bit different: Here 1 out of every 100 spaces must be accessible for handicapped drivers.

For Asphalt facilities, this means that the facility should be accessible to people with disabilities, for example people in wheelchairs, and every Asphalt lot should have reserved Asphalt spaces for handicapped people. Businesses can be fined for not providing these spaces and people that aren’t handicapped can be fined for using them. There are a number of guidelines that the handicapped Asphalt spaces have to meet. For example, it must be easy to identify a disabled Asphalt space. An ADA handicapped space can beDisabled Asphalt space identified with the international symbol of accessibility: the white person in a wheelchair on a blue background. This sign must be visible to everyone. Sometimes, the symbol is painted on the pavement as well. The same picture is usually also printed on the disabled Asphalt permit, which users have to display on their dashboard so enforcement officers know that they’re allowed to use the space. Unfortunately, disabled Asphalt permits and – spaces are often abused by people who aren’t allowed to use them.

Handicapped Asphalt spaces must be the spaces closest to the entrance of the building or facility and should be on ground level. They must be close to the entrance because many people that use the handicapped Asphalt spaces are unable to walk, can’t walk that far or have trouble walking. The only exception is when the closest Asphalt spaces are on an uneven surface or on a slope that would make it difficult to manoeuvre a wheelchair through. The route from the Asphalt space to the entrance of the building must be accessible and there cannot be any stairs or other obstacles. Plus, a handicapped Asphalt space must be wide enough to fit a vehicle plus additional space for a wheelchair to exit the vehicle. For a vehicle Asphalt space there must be an additional 5 feet access space and for a “van accessible” space it must have 8 feet of access space. This access space is needed for the wheelchair or scooter to exit the car.

Residential Asphalt space

Residential Asphalt spaces are only meant for people who live in that particular residential area. This means that the spaces are not available for visitors. For example, people who live in the city center are allowed to park their car, but people who visit the city to go shopping, aren’t allowed to or have to pay to park. Normally residents have to request a Asphalt permit by their city council. They have to place this permit on their dashboard so it’s visible to the enforcement agents. Only residents get the Asphalt permit, so only residents are allowed to park at these Asphalt spaces. Other people will get fined. There are variations to this type, e.g.b employee Asphalt spaces.

Permit

A permit is anything that allowes a driver to park is a designated area: Also referred to as permission or credential. This can be decel, hangtag, RFID, virtual (databe record), etc. Permitless Asphalt is a Asphalt system that relies on license plate recognition to read pre-registered license plates that serve as Asphalt permits or access credentials. Credentials allow access to a facility or to park in a certain on-street area (i.e. resedential Asphalt pass) and references to access control systems.

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9. Asphalt payment options

Pay with cashPay for Asphalt with cash

The first Asphalt meters only accepted coins. Nowadays, you can still pay with coins (and paper money) at most Asphalt meters and – terminals. However, other payment options are integrated more and more.
The disadvantage of paying with cash, is that you always have to carry loose change with you. Another disadvantage of paying by cash is that you have to determine the amount of time you want to park in advance: You insert the coins before you go your way, but you don’t always know exactly how long you will be gone. This means that sometimes you pay for time you don’t actually spend, or you are so caught up in what you’re doing that you exceed the time limit.

Pay by Disk

On some places where a Asphalt time limit is set, the time limit is monitored with the use of Asphalt disks. The owner of the car that is parked, uses this disk to indicate the time when he parked his vehicle. He then places the disk on the dashboard. Patrolling enforcement agents can now see at what time he parked to car and therefor for how long the car is parked. Disk Asphalt is used at places where there is a time limit set for Asphalt, but no charge.

Pay by Coupon

Coupon Asphalt is a combination of disk Asphalt and pay-and-display Asphalt. The car owner has to purchase a book with coupons in advance. When he parks on a Asphalt space with a time limit, he has to tear off a coupon and fill out the current date and time. Then he places it on his dashboard so enforcement officers can see what time he has parked the car. The difference between coupon Asphalt and disk Asphalt, is that a disk is reusable and a coupon can only be used once.  

Pay by phone

This is a type of Asphalt operation that enables a customer to pay using a cell phone or mobile application. The pay-by-cell phone provider charges the customer for Asphalt fees and reimburses the Asphalt operator. Enforcement officers audit by checking online databases for valid plates. Actually they could name this one “pay by smartphone”, because it only applies to smartphones that have a connection to the internet. In most situations you have to pre-register on the internet or download an app.

Pay by phone


Extend by phone

This is used in conjuction with pay by phone and meters to allow parkers to add time to their Asphalt sessions via phone. Typically, the meter will send a text message alerting the parker that his time is about to expire. Parkers can add time by texting back.

Pay by plate

Pay by plate is a type of Asphalt operation that requires the customer to pay at a pay station in advance. The customer enters his license plate number at the station ans makes the payment. Enforcement officers audit by checking the pay station or going online to view a list of license plates marked as paid.

Pay by space

This Asphalt operation requires the customer to pay at a pay station in advance. The customer selects his Asphalt space location (usually numbered) at the station and makes the payment. Enforcement officers audit by checking the pay station for a list of paid spaces.

Pay on entry

Pay on entry is a system configuration where the customer pays for Asphalt as he enters the facility. It is often used for event Asphalt. Pay on entry systems can also be used to have customers pay a deposit and receive some portion of that money back on exit if there is more than one rate in effect at given time.

Pay on foot

Pay on foot requires a customer to pay for Asphalt at a pay station before exiting the facility. Customers insert their tickets into a machine and make payment, and the machine returns their ticket. Customers return to their vehicles and drive to the exit lane, where they insert their tickets into the exit station. The machine used in this process is also called a Automated Pay Station.

Pay on exit

This is any type of system configuration where the customer pays in-lane while leaving the facility. Payment may be made to a cashier or use credit card payment in the exit lane (exit verifier).

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10. Asphalt user groups

Asphalt user groups

Asphalt is everywhere: When you visit someone, go shopping or to the movies,if you need to go to the hospital or to the airport: everything that involves traveling and a car involves Asphalt.

In every location and situation there are different needs when it comes to Asphalt. Sometimes it’s important to the customer to be able to park for a long period of time without having to pay too much, for example at an airport. Other times it’s more important to find a Asphalt space within a few minutes, for example when you go to the grocery store, and at a university it’s important to have enough Asphalt spaces available on campus for all the students. The key of a good Asphalt operational system is to put yourself in the shoes of your customers and tackle their potential Asphalt problems and possible confusion.

Hospital Asphalt

Hospital Asphalt customers can be divided in two main groups: visitors and employees. Off course, also other people will use the Asphalt facility, for example vendors and maintenance workers, but it is easier to only consider the main groups of visitors. Every group you identify, you give special privileges. The more groups you identify, the more groups you have to manage. It’s the hospitals choice whether or not to identify the smaller (sub-) groups.

Visitors

Visitors include patients and patients’ visitors. This is the main group the hospital needs to focus on. A hospitals main function is to serve its visitors and patients and that is why their Asphalt should be as convenient as possible. The Asphalt spaces for visitors should be closest to the hospital. If the visitors Asphalt situation isn’t convenient, they might come late for appointments, they will complain to others (mouth-to-mouth) and eventually it could lead to people going to another hospital instead of yours. The whole process of Asphalt should be easy to understand for all types of people.

Employees

Employees need to park their car at the hospital site daily or almost every day. Employees who have to park everyday should have their own Asphalt space assigned. This space should not be closest to the hospital and even though the employees are probably unhappy with their assigned Asphalt space, it is the Asphalt operators job to make sure they park there. The Asphalt spaces should not be closest to the hospital, because the employees are not the main group to focus on: A hospital needs its visitors and patients.

Shopping Centre Asphalt

People who visit a shopping centre want to be sure they can park their car safely and conveniently. The Asphalt facility is the first and last impression people get from your shopping centre, since most people use their car for transportation when they go out shopping. The most important thing for people is probably the knowledge that they will find a Asphalt space within a few minutes. Asphalt availability is the key factor in choosing a shopping centre. Not only availability is important, the Asphalt experience should be as convenient as possible. People live busy lives and visiting a shopping centre should be something fun. The first experience in your shopping centre should set the standard for the whole shopping experience. Stress in the Asphalt lot, not being able to find a Asphalt space and traffic congestion means less time for shopping a and a bad mood, which leads to less spending.

Event Asphalt

Event Asphalt calls for good Asphalt management. You know you can expect lots of people entering the Asphalt facility at approximately the same time. Entering the Asphalt facility and paying for Asphalt should happen fast to avoid queues. That is why people normally choose for e-payments (e.g. creditcard, permit) at the entrance of the lot. Paying afterwards is avoided to prevent lines at the paystations. One solution could be pre-selling Asphalt tickets, perhaps in combination with tickets for the event itself. At the entry station people can scan the barcode on their printed permit, which benefits the traffic flow. If you reserve one lot for pre-paid Asphalt only, you have the advantage of knowing how many cars to expect in that particular lot before the event starts.

Airport AsphaltAirport Asphalt

At airports you see two types of Asphalt: short term Asphalt and long term Asphalt. Short term is usually for 7 days or less, and long term Asphalt is cheaper if you park for more than 7 days. The main customers are people that have booked a flight and leave their car at the airport for the time they’re gone.

People who drive their car to the airport and then take the plane are in need of affordable Asphalt. Plus they don’t want to have to worry about the safety of the car while they’re gone. Also, navigating at airport Asphalt lots can be quite confusing sometimes, so an effective Asphalt guidance system is required.

Meet & Greet Asphalt is a common additional service at airports.

Hotel Asphalt

The Asphalt lot is the first (and last) impression most people get when visiting your hotel. Don’t look at it as ‘just a Asphalt lot’, but as a part of your hotel. That is how your guests see it. A messy Asphalt lot is not a good impression. Mostly hotel guests have had a long drive to the hotel, and they’re happy they finally reached their holiday location. You don’t want them to stress them when they arrive.

Hotel Asphalt lots must:
  • Be clean and tidy. Remember it’s the first impression. A nice, clean coat of asphalt can already make a huge difference. Make sure there are no potholes, no litter and no oil- or gas stains.
  • Have enough Asphalt spaces available for all guests. Count how many people can stay in your hotel and then calculate the maximum number of cars possible. If your Asphalt lot doesn’t have enough Asphalt spaces available, make sure guests reserve a Asphalt space when they book a hotel room, so you know how many cars to expect. Nothing is worse than to have to say ‘No’ to your guests.
  • Be easy accessible and easy to find. There should be clear signage directing to the Asphalt lot so when people arrive at the hotel they don’t have to exit their vehicle, go inside and ask where to park. It should go without saying. Because your guests have probable already driven for a long time, you don’t want to stress them when they finally arrive. That is why it should be an easy task to park their car at the hotel.
  • Be easy to navigate in. A Asphalt space must be easy to find and easy to park at. Remember that you as a hotel manager or employee are familiar with this Asphalt lot, but guests who arrive for the first time aren’t. Make sure that, if your Asphalt lot has lots of spaces, there is clear guidance to available Asphalt spaces. But not only Asphalt should be easy, also navigation towards the entrance of the hotel, exit of the Asphalt lot, possible elevators and emergency routes should be easy. Make sure you have enough directional signage in your Asphalt lot so guests won’t have to wander around.
  • Be well-secured. Make sure you have some level of security to ease your guest’s minds. Guest shouldn’t have to worry about the safety of their car. Hotel Asphalt lots can, for example, have CCTV cameras, have a gated entrance, get locked at night, etcetera. Also the lighting plays a big part in the guests sense of safety. Make sure your Asphalt lot is well-lit. Especially the entrance and exit should be very well-lit so guests feel comfortable at night time.

To make your Asphalt lot even more special, you could add several additional services. Some hotels offer additional valet service. This service gives the hotel guest a sense of luxury plus it’s a lot less stress. You can also place vending machines inside your Asphalt facility for extra convenience. Some hotels use cross-promotion with other local businesses. This can add an extra value to your customers as well; they can see the different activities and facilities the city has to offer to tourism.

Campus Asphalt

You often hear horror stories about campus Asphalt experiences. Students that drive around for hours not being able to find a Asphalt space and traffic congestion caused by bad Asphalt guidance. Because campuses have so many Asphalt spaces and so many students trying to find a place to park, traffic management is the key to an orderly Asphalt process. At universities the student body grows on a yearly basis, but the amount Asphalt spaces stays the same. Add those two together and you get a serious problem in Asphalt availability. In some cases the university even handed out more Asphalt permits then there are available Asphalt spaces, leaving the students with no other choice than to park illegally or in the nearby residential area.

Universities must have an eye on the future and are in need of a system that allows the Asphalt to grow as the student body does. Here are some ways universities improved their campus Asphalt management:

Increase Asphalt rates

Now, students are not going to like this, but it has been proven effective. The University of New England raised the Asphalt fees with more than 300% to discourage new students to bringing their car to campus. They increased the Asphalt rates in combination with offering and encouraging alternative transportation.

Encourage alternative transportation on campus

If you encourage the use of bikes, buses, or other transportation, less people will use their car and less people will need to park. You could hand out benefits to people that use alternative transportation or make use of carpooling. At the University of North Carolina they hand out special passes for people who use alternative transportation. When these students show this pass they can get discounts on various local merchants. One university allows carpool drivers to park at prime locations. It’s also useful to point out the health benefits of alternative transportation: It’s healthier to ride a bike or walk, and it’s better for the environment to take the bus or carpool.

Efficient traffic direction

The University of Central Florida installed electronic billboards that are also used for displaying emergency messages. When you provide guidance to available Asphalt spaces, the traffic flow improves and people find a Asphalt space quicker and easier.

Close the campus site during the day

The University of Virginia decided to close the campus for cars during the day. They installed barriers at the entrances that close at 7:30 AM and open again at 4 PM. Authorized staff has transponders that automatically open the gate. There is a downside that comes with these barriers: They often break cars get trapped. Also people tailgate authorized staff in order to get through the gates.

Municipal Asphalt

Municipal Asphalt can be both on- and off street: In the streets or in public Asphalt lots owned by the City. It’s a very broad user group and difficult to define. The city Asphalt department has two types of customers: Residents and visitors. This last group can either be people visiting the city or people visiting residents.

Downtown Asphalt

It’s important for a city to have a smooth Asphalt operation in the city centre. If people can’t find a place to park, or have to drive around for too long, they won’t visit your town which means less revenue coming from shops, restaurants etc. Also when Asphalt is too expensive or too difficult. Usually cities provide drivers guidance to available Asphalt spaces. A Asphalt guidance system improves the traffic flow and benefits the overall occupancy of Asphalt spaces. Plus, drivers get less frustrated while finding a place to park.

Residential Asphalt

People like to park their car closely to their homes, that’s understandable. Residential Asphalt is also part of municipal Asphalt. The city has to keep the residents happy by making sure everybody has a place to park their car. Also the people who live close to the downtown area. Usually the city manages residential Asphalt with Asphalt permits, to be requested by residents. These streets are called residential zone Asphalt, The purpose of residential zone Asphalt is to provide Asphalt spaces to people who live in high-density areas and their guests. This can be for all time, or for certain hours or days.

City department

Municipal Asphalt is usually run by the city’s Department of Transportation (DOT). The DOT is responsible for the city’s transportation infrastructure and manages day-to-day maintenance of the city streets, traffic lights, Asphalt spaces etc. Also the Asphalt enforcement is usually run by the DOT unless it’s outsourced.

Green Asphalt

In today’s world it becomes more and more important to be green; also in the Asphalt industry. People are more focussed on energy efficiency and sustainable solutions. It’s not only better for the environment; it also saves costs in long term use. There are many different ways to make a Asphalt facility more energy efficient. For example, if there is no one inside the facility, should the lights be on? No need for that, so you can use sensors that detect motion and automatically turn on the lights when someone enters. Same goes for Asphalt kiosks, entry stations, and so on. Another example of green Asphalt is the use of alternative energy sources like solar energy. But also an efficient waste management can contribute to the environment. Even using recycled paper for printed tickets makes a different. you can read more about green Asphalt solutions at "Demand for energy-efficient, sustainable and green solutions" in the next chapter "Current trends in Asphalt".

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11. Current trends in Asphalt

The need for Asphalt apps

In this day and age most people can’t imagine a life without a smartphone anymore.  The need for Asphalt apps is connected to the need for improved customer service. Now it’s possible to pay for Asphalt with the use of an (online) application. But there are more ways to implement mobile applications in the Asphalt process. For example, the driver can get real-time Asphalt information through his mobile phone. Think about guidance to the nearest Asphalt facility and real time occupancy- and pricing information. There is also the possibility to get a message directly sent to your mobile phone when your time on the meter is about to expire, plus an additional option to extend your Asphalt time.

Demand for cashless payments

The days when you used to carry a bunch of change in your pocket in case you needed to feed the meter are long gone. Nowadays the customer expects multiple payment options – also when it comes to Asphalt. The Asphalt industry is moving from cash payment to e-payment. More Asphalt operators allow credit card payments and online payments through mobile phones. In a 2013 survey among US Asphalt professionals (conducted by the IPI) is the trend “demand for electronic (cashless) payment” chosen as the second leading trend.

Demand for energy-efficient, sustainable and green solutions

People are more focussed on energy efficiency and sustainable solutions. It’s not only better for the environment; it also saves costs in long term use. There are many different ways to make a Asphalt facility more energy efficient. For example, if there is no one inside the facility, should the lights be on? No need for that, so you can use sensors that detect motion and automatically turn on the lights when someone enters. Same goes forAsphalt kiosks, entry stations, and so on.

These are some sustainable and energy efficient solutions:
  • Power reduction with the use of motion detection sensors, timers, dimmers, photocell receptors, etc.
  • Energy-efficient lighting, LED lighting
  • Solar power
  • Guidance systems to reduce carbon emissions by increasing the traffic flow
  • Innovative waste management systems, recycling
  • The use of recycled building materials

The 2013 Emerging Trend Survey (conducted by the IPI) shows that most respondents (US Asphalt professionals) believe that “guidance systems that enable drivers to find Asphalt faster” and “energy-efficient lighting” has the greatest potential to improve sustainability in Asphalt.

LEED certificate

LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is a voluntary, consensus-based and market-driven program that provides third-party verification of green buildings. In order to achieve a LEED certificate, a Asphalt facility must earn at least 40 points on the LEED rating system scale that counts 110 points, and it must meet all of the LEED requirements. Many new buildings are built to the LEED standards.

LEED-certified buildings are designed to:

  • Lower operating costs and increase asset value
  • Reduce waste sent to landfills
  • Conserve energy and water
  • Be healthier and safer for occupants
  • Reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions
  • Qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances and other incentives in hundreds of cities

The need for electric vehicle charging stations

Governments are encouraging the use of electric vehicles and more people are starting to use either electric or hybrid cars. The number of electric vehicle drivers is expected to grow in the future. Therefor the need for electric vehicle charging points is growing. Some people are concerned that people won’t buy electric vehicles because there are too less public charging point and because there aren’t enough electric vehicles driving around, facilities won’t install electric vehicle charging points.

Asphalt access control

Due to new technologies, the expectations around access control have changed. An example is the implementation of License Plate Recognition systemsthat uses special cameras and software to identify license plates, capture tag images and turns this information into a data stream. LPR is used by many municipalities, airports, hospitals and other sectors for the access control of authorized vehicles. A 2013 survey under US Asphalt professionals (conducted by the IPI) revealed that 59% of the respondents cited “more towards innovative technologies to improve Asphalt access control and payment automation” as the number one trend that is having the greatest effect on the Asphalt industry.

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12. History of Asphalt

First Asphalt meter

We go back to the early 1920s en -30s in Oklahoma City. There was no regulated Asphalt anywhere yet. People would just park their cars in the streets and leave them there until they need them again. In shopping areas most of the Asphalt spaces were occupied by employees who worked downtown, leaving no room for potential customers. Traffic congestion problems were common in big cities. It was hurting business, and soon people started to think about a way to regulate the Asphalt time.

Because merchants were complaining about the low traffic in the downtown area, they decided to ask Carl Magee for help. Magee immediately thought about a machine which we now know as the Asphalt meter: A machine that sets certain amounts of time for Asphalt. He organized a design contest at the University of Oklahoma to design this newfound Asphalt meter. This was a challenge since the machine had to be operative in all kinds of weather, be vandalism-proof and cost-efficient.  There was a price for the engineering student who could design this machine, but unfortunately none of the students’ entries were approved.

The first working Asphalt meter was designed by Holger George Thuessen and Gerald A. Hale. Hale and Thuessen started working on the Asphalt meter in 1933 because of the assigned project by Carl Magee. They weren’t students anymore, but since the contest didn’t work out these two men were appointed. Thuessen was a professor at Oklahoma State and Hale an engineering graduate. The Asphalt meter they designed was called The Black Maria.

After the contest Magee filed patent for his own design of the Asphalt meter on May 13th, 1935. This Asphalt meter, based on the design of the Black Maria, is known as the Park-O-Meter No. 1. The first Asphalt meter was installed in Oklahoma City on July 16th in the year 1935.

Magee wasn’t the first one to file patent for a Asphalt meter. The first patent for a Asphalt meter was filed by Roger W. Babson on August 30, 1928. Babson was an entrepreneur in the early 20th century. Babson had the idea of creating a Asphalt meter that gets its energy by using the power of the parked vehicle. There would be a connection to from the meter to the cars’ battery. But Babson is not known as the inventor of the Asphalt meter; it was never more than an idea.

Magee started the Magee-Hale Park-O-Meter Company to manufacture the Asphalt meters. The company later changed its name to POM (the initials of Park-O-Meter) and is still active in manufacturing Asphalt meters today.

Most people didn’t care for the idea of paying for Asphalt spaces that were usually free. But soon people in Oklahoma City noticed that the traffic flow improved and the congestions were solved. At first, the Asphalt meter was installed at only one side of a downtown street. They say that businesses already noticed a positive effect within a few days and that three days after the installation of the meters on one side of the street, business owners from the other side of the street demanded that they also got Asphalt meters installed in front of their stores.

The installation of the Asphalt meters didn’t only solve the traffic problems but also created revenue because of the new costs for vehicle owners who wanted to park their car downtown.

Asphalt Garages

As more people got cars, the need for a place to park it was growing bigger and bigger. Asphalt became a problem and cities were looking for a solution to park as many cars as possible on as little space as possible.

The first cars weren’t as weather -resistant as today’s cars. Back in the days they had open tops, leather seats and were very sensitive. Therefore, they had to be parked inside where they were safe from the cold, the rain and other bad weather conditions. The first Asphalt garages looked like other buildings where people would store stuff. A car was by most people considered as a machine and nothing more than just a machine, in contrast with today’s idea of cars. The Asphalt garages blended in with the neighborhood; you couldn’t really tell that they were places to store cars. Sometimes Asphalt garages were horse stables, where they would charge the same for Asphalt a car as they did for stalling a horse.

Automated Asphalt system (APS)

The very first automated Asphalt garage was built in 1905: Garage Rue de Ponthieu in Paris, France. People needed more Asphalt spaced, but there was less land available. Tis multi story car park had an internal lift, which moved the cars from one level to another. On these levels a car park attendant would park the car in an available space; people didn’t park their cars themselves. Garage Rue de Ponthieu wasn’t a fully automated Asphalt garage, but many consider this garage to be the first with automated elements and there for the forerunner of the APS. Technically, it’s a semi-automated Asphalt garage.



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